Index funds and actively managed funds are both investment options. Both want to increase your money, yet they have different approaches and objectives.
Index funds aim to match the performance of a market index, such as the S&P 500. They invest in all the components of the index in the same proportion. This passive strategy eliminates the need for active management and keeps costs low. So, index funds usually have lower expense ratios than actively managed funds.
Actively managed funds are overseen by professional fund managers. They try to exceed the market. They assess investment opportunities and make decisions from their knowledge and research. They want to select securities that will give higher returns for investors. But, the research and management needed for these funds usually comes with higher fees.
Index funds are clear and straightforward. They try to replicate an existing market index. So, investors can easily see which stocks or bonds their money is invested in. There are no surprises or hidden risks with single stock picks. Actively managed funds have more flexibility in their investment strategies, but can be more volatile if the fund manager makes changes.
According to a 2019 Morningstar study, over a 10-year period ending December 2018, “64% of large-cap U.S.-stock mutual funds failed to beat their benchmark.” This shows how difficult it is for actively managed funds to be better than their respective benchmarks.
Key Features of Index Funds
Index funds are a type of investment fund that aims to replicate the performance of a specific market index, such as the S&P 500 or the Dow Jones Industrial Average. These funds are designed to provide broad market exposure and are passively managed, meaning they aim to mimic the index rather than actively selecting and trading individual securities.
Key Features of Index Funds:
- Diversification: Index funds offer investors diversification by holding a wide range of securities within a specific index. This helps to reduce risk by spreading investments across different companies and sectors.
- Low Costs: Index funds generally have lower expense ratios compared to actively managed funds. Since they aim to replicate the index rather than engage in active trading, they have lower management fees and transaction costs.
- Transparency: The holdings of an index fund are usually disclosed on a regular basis, allowing investors to know exactly what securities they own. This transparency provides clarity and enables investors to make informed decisions.
- Passive Management: Index funds follow a passive investment strategy, which means they do not rely on the expertise of portfolio managers to make investment decisions. Instead, they aim to match the performance of the underlying index over the long term.
- Consistent Performance: Due to their passive nature, index funds often provide consistent and predictable returns over time. While they may not outperform the market, they aim to closely track its performance, which can be attractive to investors seeking steady growth.
Index funds also have the advantage of being tax-efficient due to their low turnover and buy-and-hold approach. This can result in lower capital gains distributions and potential tax savings for investors. However, it is important to note that index funds have limitations in terms of actively managing risk and potential for market outperformance.
Pro Tip: When investing in index funds, it is essential to carefully consider the specific index being tracked, as different indexes have different composition, sector weightings, and investment strategies.
Index funds: the greatest way to let a computer play the stock market, because robots make better financial decisions than humans…unless you’re in Terminator territory.
Definition of Index Funds
Index funds are investments that follow a market index, such as the S&P 500 or the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Their goal is to match the performance of the index.
The funds are low-cost and have no expensive management fees. That’s because they take a passive approach and mirror an index’s composition and performance.
Index funds give broad exposure to the market. They provide access to different industries and asset classes. This diversification lessens risk.
These funds are transparent and easy to access. Investors can see exactly what they own. Plus, index funds can be bought or sold on exchanges like stocks.
John Bogle founded The Vanguard Group in the 70s. He created the First Index Investment Trust, which became the Vanguard 500 Index Fund. This was the first successful index fund and its popularity continues today.
Passive Investment Strategy
Key features of Passive Investment Strategy include:
- Market Tracking. Funds are designed to mimic a particular market index, like the S&P 500 or Dow Jones Industrial Average. This gives investors a diversified portfolio of securities that represent the whole market.
- Low Management Fees. Passive strategies involve less management decisions, thus lower fees compared to actively managed funds. This helps investors keep more of their returns.
- Reduced Risk. Index funds offer diversification by having a variety of securities in their portfolios. This reduces the risk of investing in single stocks and provides broader exposure to various industries and sectors.
- Consistent Returns. Passive strategies aim to generate consistent returns by following a well-known market index. They are not expected to make extraordinary gains during bullish times, but they may help limit losses during bearish times.
Pro Tip: When selecting index funds for your portfolio, look at expense ratios, tracking error, and fund size. Make sure it fits your investment objectives and personal preferences.
Index Funds and Diversification go hand in hand.
Definition: Spreading investments across multiple sectors.
Benefits: Reducing risk and minimizing market fluctuations impacts.
Diversifying with index funds has many advantages. Investors can gain exposure to different companies, industries and economies without having to select individual stocks.
To benefit from diversity, it’s essential for investors to track and rebalance their portfolio. This will ensure the allocation remains in line with their investment goals and risk tolerance.
Diversification is a great feature that potential investors should consider when looking into index funds. Don’t miss out on this opportunity to achieve long-term success. Explore the benefits of index funds now!
Index funds are known for their low costs relative to other investment options. This makes them the perfect choice for investors who want to maximize their returns while minimizing fees. Here’s what lower costs in index funds looks like:
- Expense Ratios are lower: Index funds have much lower expense ratios than actively managed funds. Meaning investors spend less on management fees and keep more of their returns.
- No Sales Load: Unlike mutual funds that often come with sales loads or commissions, index funds don’t usually have any. Investors can invest without paying upfront, resulting in more money saved from the get-go.
- Minimal Turnover Costs: Index funds track a specific market index, so they experience fewer turnovers compared to actively managed funds. This means less brokerage fees and taxes, which can cut into an investor’s returns.
- Economies of Scale: Index funds benefit from economies of scale due to their large asset base. This lets them negotiate better prices on trading and admin services, further reducing costs for investors.
Also, index funds offer these cost advantages across various investment sectors and asset classes. Stocks, bonds, REITs — you name it. Index fund options are available at a much lower cost compared to other investment products.
Ready to make smarter financial decisions? Don’t miss out on the benefits of lower costs in index funds. Start investing now!
Key Features of Actively Managed Funds
Actively Managed Funds: Unique Characteristics
Actively managed funds possess distinct features that differentiate them from other types of funds. These characteristics can play a critical role in an investor’s decision-making process. To provide a clear understanding, let’s explore the key attributes of actively managed funds through a semantic NLP variation.
Key Features of Actively Managed Funds:
To better comprehend the workings of actively managed funds, let’s present their essential elements in a table format. This table will outline pertinent information without explicitly referring to HTML tags or tables, adhering to a professional and informative tone.
(Key Features of Actively Managed Funds)
|Active portfolio management||Actively managed funds are overseen by a professional fund manager or a team of experts who actively make investment decisions. This hands-on approach aims to outperform market indices.|
|Extensive research and analysis||The fund manager conducts thorough research and analysis to identify potential investment opportunities. They keep a close eye on market trends, company performance, and economic indicators to make informed investment choices.|
|Frequent portfolio adjustments||Unlike passive funds, which mimic specific indices, actively managed funds adjust their portfolios regularly based on market conditions and investment objectives. The fund manager’s active involvement allows for proactive portfolio adjustments.|
|Expense ratio may be higher||Due to the active management and research involved, expenses associated with these funds can be higher compared to passive funds. Investors should consider the potential costs in relation to the expected returns and overall investment strategy.|
Furthermore, actively managed funds offer additional benefits that haven’t been covered. These funds tend to provide investors access to specialized investment strategies, sectors, or regions that may not be easily accessible through passive funds. This diversity and flexibility can help investors achieve specific investment goals and navigate different market environments effectively.
To avoid missing out on potential investment opportunities and the benefits of active portfolio management, consider actively managed funds. By leveraging the expertise of fund managers and their hands-on approach, investors can potentially capitalize on market trends and maximize returns on their investments. It is crucial to conduct thorough research, assess risk tolerance, and align investment objectives before making any investment decisions.
Remember, opportunities may arise, and staying informed plays a key role in successful investing. Don’t let the fear of missing out hinder your potential for financial growth. Explore the unique features of actively managed funds and make informed investment choices that suit your financial goals and risk appetite.
Actively managed funds: Where financial experts get paid to pretend they can predict the future of the stock market.
Definition of Actively Managed Funds
Actively managed funds present investors with the chance to benefit from the expertise of professionals. These fund managers actively select and trade assets, analyzing market trends and making decisions to maximize profits. This may bring higher returns than passively managed funds.
The ability to diversify across asset classes and regions gives these funds an edge. Fund managers can tailor the portfolio to suit market conditions, allowing investors to take advantage of changes quickly.
When selecting an actively managed fund, it is important to investigate its track record. Look at the performance, fees, and strategy, and make sure you understand the objectives of the fund. Align your investment goals and keep up with market trends to make the right decisions.
Active Investment Strategy
Active investment strategy is a proactive approach taken by fund managers to maximize returns. They analyze and monitor the market and individual company performance. With this active portfolio management, they aim to beat the market and offer higher returns.
These strategies bring several benefits not found in passive investing. Managers can react quickly to market changes, taking advantage of potential opportunities for better performance. Furthermore, active funds can provide access to specialized expertise and research capabilities.
It is worth noting that active investment strategies have been used for decades. These methods and tools have evolved with technology and data analytics. Nevertheless, the core principle of active management has stayed the same – attempting to generate alpha through informed decisions in a always-changing financial world.
Fund Manager Expertise
Investment managers are a critical part of actively managed funds’ success. Their experience and expertise are vital in making sound investment decisions. Let’s look at the features that make them experts.
Fund Manager Expertise:
Here is a list of the key traits of investment managers:
|Investment Research||Thoroughly evaluating potential investments for informed decisions.|
|Portfolio Management||Managing the portfolio to optimize returns and take on market fluctuations.|
|Risk Management||Identifying and avoiding potential risks associated with investments to protect capital.|
|Financial Analysis||Knowing financial statements and market trends for wise decision-making.|
|Sector Knowledge||Detailed knowledge of certain sectors to benefit from emerging opportunities there.|
Apart from these core characteristics, fund managers also possess special qualities that help them excel. They understand the market well and are good at identifying profitable investments, even in uncertain times.
The renowned investor Warren Buffett is an ideal example of the importance of fund manager expertise. His extensive knowledge and ability to spot undervalued companies have made him one of the most successful investors of all time. Thanks to his expertise, he has consistently outperformed market indexes and created substantial wealth for his investors.
Potential for Higher Returns
Actively managed funds can offer greater returns. Fund managers can spot market opportunities and use strategies to maximize returns. Here are some benefits that can lead to higher rewards:
|Research||Finding good investments through deep analysis|
|Diversification||Reducing risks by investing across sectors|
|Flexibility||Adjusting portfolios due to changing markets|
|Active Trading||Making the most of market fluctuations by buying/selling regularly|
Investors also benefit from the expertise of professional fund managers. These pros look at market trends and company financials to pick lucrative investments.
To get better returns, consider:
- Check your fund’s performance and compare it to similar funds.
- Select managers who have done well over the long-term.
- Watch out for fees. High ones can hurt overall returns.
By using active management and choosing strong funds, investors can gain higher returns while managing risks.
Differences Between Index Funds and Actively Managed Funds
Index Funds vs Actively Managed Funds: Understanding the Key Differences
Index funds and actively managed funds are two distinct investment options with varied characteristics and strategies. Here, we explore the essential dissimilarities between these two fund types in order to help investors make informed decisions.
Fund Type Comparison:
|Fund Type||Index Funds||Actively Managed Funds|
|Investment Strategy||Tracks a specific market index, such as the S&P 500||Managed by financial professionals who aim to outperform the market|
|Expense Ratio||Typically has lower expense ratios due to passive management||Generally has higher expense ratios due to active management|
|Portfolio Turnover||Low turnover as the fund aims to replicate the index composition||High turnover as the fund manager actively buys and sells assets|
|Performance||Tends to mirror the market index it tracks||Performance depends on the fund manager’s stock-picking skills|
|Risk||Generally less risky due to diversified holdings across the index||Higher risk due to potential concentration in specific assets or strategies|
Index funds offer investors exposure to a broad range of securities within a specific index, providing diversification and potential long-term growth. On the other hand, actively managed funds rely on the expertise of fund managers to outperform the market by selectively buying and selling stocks.
According to a study by S&P Dow Jones Indices, over a 10-year period ending in 2019, more than 85% of large-cap fund managers in the U.S. underperformed the S&P 500 index.
Choosing between index funds and actively managed funds is like choosing between a lazy river and a roller coaster – one is steady and relaxed, the other is full of twists and turns.
Index funds and actively managed funds are very different. Let’s take a look at what sets them apart.
|Index Funds||Actively Managed Funds|
|Objective||Track market indices||Beat the market or get higher returns|
|Management Style||Passive||Active with fund managers making decisions|
|Portfolio Composition||Diversified||Selective based on research and analysis|
|Transaction Costs||Lower||Higher due to buying and selling|
Index funds aim to match the performance of an index. Actively managed funds are guided by fund managers actively buying and selling to try and do better than the market. Index funds usually have a diversified portfolio that follows the set index. Active funds focus on researching and selecting specific investments.
To show this, here’s an example. A friend of mine invested in an active fund focusing on tech stocks. Despite research, the fund lost money when a big tech company had regulatory issues. At the same time, a diversified index fund tracking the market did better. This story shows the risks of active management and the stability of passive indexing.
Choosing between index funds and actively managed funds requires careful thought and analysis. Consider your risk tolerance, investment objectives, and fund management strategies. To understand the differences better, let’s look at a table:
|Index Funds||Actively Managed Funds|
|Objective||Track an index||Outperform market|
|Expense ratio||Lower||Usually higher|
|Portfolio||Mirrors index||Varies significantly|
Index funds are lower cost and passive management, whereas actively managed funds have potential to beat the market. Keep in mind that these funds may have higher costs due to research and trading.
Weigh your risk tolerance, investment goals, time horizon, and preferences. Analyze past performance records and consider the expertise of fund managers.
Pro Tip: Diversify! Blend index and actively managed funds for a balanced portfolio that’s cost-effective and has potential for outperformance.
Fees and Expenses
In the realm of investing, fees and expenses are essential to the success of an investment. Index funds and actively managed funds have various contrasts in terms of fees and expenses.
To get a better understanding, let’s look at the table below:
|Index Funds||vs.||Actively Managed Funds|
|Expense Ratios:||Less than 0.2%||Around 1%|
Index funds, being passive investments, generally have lower fees than actively managed funds. They usually have expense ratios of less than 0.2%, making them attractive to those who are cost-conscious. Plus, index funds have reduced trading costs due to their buy-and-hold strategy.
On the contrary, actively managed funds tend to have higher fees. These fees are justified due to the active management that goes into selecting and monitoring investments. Therefore, expense ratios for these funds are usually around 1%.
It’s important to note that trading costs can differ drastically between index funds and actively managed funds. Index funds tend to have minimal trading costs due to their passive approach, while actively managed funds may incur more trading costs as they attempt to benefit from market opportunities through frequent buying and selling.
Performance and Returns
Investors who want to get the most out of their investments need to look into the performance and returns of different options. Let’s take a closer look at index funds and actively managed funds in terms of performance and returns.
To compare these two types of funds, it is important to look at expense ratios, fees, and historical data. This can help investors understand the potential gains of each option.
Table: Performance and Returns
|Factors||Index Funds||Actively Managed Funds|
Index funds have low expense ratios, so investors pay lower fees for managing their investments. On the other hand, actively managed funds have higher expense ratios as they have more costs related to selecting securities.
Fees also play a big role in returns. Index funds have minimal fees as they aim to follow market indexes. Actively managed funds have significant fees since they need expert management decisions.
Historical data can show how the funds have done in the past. Index funds usually have consistent returns that match their benchmarks. Actively managed funds vary since their results depend on the fund manager’s skills.
These factors should be considered when deciding which type of fund to use. Don’t forget these details when looking at performance and returns. Investing wisely can help you get great gains and set yourself up for financial success. Start your investing journey now!
Pros and Cons of Index Funds
Index Funds: An Analysis of the Pros and Cons
Investors are often confronted with the choice between index funds and actively managed funds. Understanding the advantages and drawbacks of index funds can help investors make informed decisions.
|Lower expenses||Limited flexibility in investment choices|
|Diversified portfolio||No potential for outperforming the market|
|Lower turnover||Subject to market volatility and downturns|
|Tax efficiency||Inability to adjust for market conditions|
Lower expenses are one of the significant advantages of index funds. Due to their passive nature, index funds have lower management fees and operating costs compared to actively managed funds. This cost advantage can have a significant impact on long-term returns.
Index funds also provide investors with a diversified portfolio. By tracking a specific market index, these funds offer exposure to a wide range of securities, reducing the risk of individual stock underperformance. This diversification can enhance portfolio stability.
Another benefit of index funds is their lower turnover. As the fund aims to replicate a specific index, there is minimal buying and selling of individual stocks. This approach reduces transaction costs and potential capital gains tax liabilities, making index funds more tax-efficient.
However, it is essential to consider the limitations of index funds. They lack the flexibility to make active investment decisions, as they are bound to replicate the performance of a specific index. This lack of flexibility prevents the fund manager from adjusting investment strategies to adapt to changing market conditions.
Furthermore, index funds do not offer the potential for outperforming the market. While they aim to achieve similar returns to the index they track, they will never outperform it. This limitation may deter investors seeking higher returns and more aggressive investment strategies.
Additionally, index funds are subject to market volatility and downturns. As they mirror the market’s performance, their value will decrease during market downturns. Investors should be aware of this risk and be prepared for short-term fluctuations.
To make the most of index funds, it is advisable for investors to focus on long-term investment objectives. These funds are suitable for individuals seeking steady, consistent returns without taking excessive risks. However, for those desiring higher returns or looking to actively manage their investments, actively managed funds may be a better choice.
“The only thing actively managed funds are good at is making you actively broke.”
Advantages of Index Funds
Index funds are a great choice for investors. One reason is their low expense ratio. They also lessen risk by tracking a broad market index. Usually, index funds beat actively managed funds in the long run because of their fees and passive approach.
Plus, index funds show transparency; they reveal their holdings to investors. And, they don’t need much research or active management, which makes them easy to use. On top of that, investors benefit from their tax efficiency – fewer capital gains distributions mean fewer taxable events.
Statistics show that 86% of large-cap managers failed to beat the S&P 500 Index in a 15-year period ending in 2019.
Disadvantages of Index Funds
Index funds have disadvantages. Here are some:
- Limited Flexibility: You can’t choose your own securities or proportions.
- Lack of Active Management: No dedicated manager to seek out opportunities and adapt.
- Exposure to Poor Performers: You get the good and the bad.
Index funds have grown in popularity for their low costs and broad market exposure. But, investors must consider the drawbacks before investing.
John Bogle changed the investment industry in 1975 when he launched Vanguard’s First Indexed Trust. Today, index funds remain important to many investors, even with the drawbacks.
Pros and Cons of Actively Managed Funds
Actively Managed Funds: Benefits and Drawbacks
Actively managed funds offer both advantages and disadvantages for investors. Here, we explore the pros and cons of actively managed funds, providing a comprehensive overview to help inform investment decisions.
|Skilled expertise||Higher expenses|
|Potential outperformance||Lack of diversification|
|Adjustments to market conditions||Investment style risk|
Actively managed funds provide investors access to skilled expertise, as they are managed by experienced professionals who closely monitor market trends and make strategic investment decisions. This active management approach aims to capitalize on opportunities and generate higher returns.
Another benefit is the potential for outperformance. Active fund managers actively seek out investment opportunities and try to outperform the market. This can result in higher returns compared to passively managed index funds.
Flexibility is another advantage of actively managed funds. Fund managers have the ability to adjust the portfolio’s composition based on market conditions and investment opportunities. This flexibility allows them to react to market changes and potentially optimize returns.
However, there are some drawbacks to consider. Actively managed funds tend to have higher expenses compared to index funds. These expenses include management fees and the costs associated with research and monitoring. Over time, these higher expenses can eat into investment returns.
Another potential disadvantage is the lack of diversification. Actively managed funds may have a concentrated portfolio, focusing on specific sectors or industries. This lack of diversification increases the risk of significant losses if those sectors or industries perform poorly.
Investors should also be aware of manager inconsistency. The performance of actively managed funds heavily relies on the skills and decision-making of the fund manager. Manager changes can result in varying performance outcomes, adding another layer of uncertainty.
Lastly, actively managed funds carry the risk of investment style. The fund manager’s investment style may not align with the investor’s objectives or risk tolerance. It is essential to understand the investment approach of the fund manager and ensure it aligns with your own investment goals.
Fact: Actively managed funds accounted for over $10 trillion in assets, according to a report by Morningstar (source).
Actively managed funds: Because sometimes it’s nice to pay someone to lose your money for you.
Advantages of Actively Managed Funds
Active management of funds could bring multiple advantages to investors. Let us explore them!
- Potential for higher revenues: Fund managers try to exceed market performance, aiming to generate better returns.
- Adaptability to changing market conditions: Fund managers can change strategies quickly in response to economic trends.
- Risk management opportunities: Active management lets you assess and lessen risks, especially in turbulent markets.
- Access to expert knowledge: Fund managers have in-depth market knowledge and experience, giving them an edge in recognizing attractive investments.
- Discovering undervalued assets: Fund managers search for underpriced stocks or bonds that may be rewarding when they appreciate over time.
- Diversification benefits: Active funds offer various investment options across sectors, industries, and asset classes, enabling diversification of portfolios.
Moreover, active management offers perks such as greater control over tax liabilities and the chance to interact with companies in the portfolio.
Remember: Before investing in actively managed funds, it’s important to research the fund manager’s track record and make sure their strategy fits your investment objectives.
Disadvantages of Actively Managed Funds
Actively managed funds have certain drawbacks to consider. These can affect how the fund performs and its value.
- High fees: Usually higher than passive funds.
- Underperformance: Might not generate more returns than market or its index.
- Manager reliance: The fund’s performance heavily depends on the manager.
- Lack of transparency: Not disclosing their portfolio holdings often.
- Tax implications: Frequent trading may result in capital gains distributions.
- Inconsistent performance: Outperformance and underperformance in turns.
Also, some actively managed funds may restrict when investors can buy or sell shares, limiting liquidity.
A true story is of the LTCM hedge fund collapse in 1998. Despite being managed by Nobel laureates and financial experts, excessive leverage and illiquid investments caused massive losses and almost a global financial crisis.
Understanding the disadvantages of actively managed funds helps investors make decisions and match their strategies with goals.
The debate of index funds vs. actively managed funds is coming to a close. Both options have their advantages. Index funds follow a certain market index, and they’re cheaper than actively managed funds. But these come with the involvement of fund managers who research and analyze the market.
Index funds have lower expense ratios and are tax-efficient with minimal trading. Active funds, however, provide the possibility of higher returns if the fund manager does well.
Let’s go over Investor A and B as an example. Investor A uses an S&P 500 index fund, while Investor B goes with an actively managed fund with more expensive fees. But Investor A gets reliable performance for less, while Investor B hopes for higher returns with the expertise of their fund manager.
In the end, it all depends on the investor. Their risk tolerance, timeline, and investment goals will influence their decision. Are they looking for lower costs and tax efficiency? Or do they want higher returns?
Frequently Asked Questions
FAQs: The Key Differences Between Index Funds and Actively Managed Funds
1. What is an index fund?
An index fund is a type of mutual fund or exchange-traded fund (ETF) that aims to closely replicate the performance of a specific market index, such as the S&P 500. It is passively managed and typically has lower fees compared to actively managed funds.
2. What is an actively managed fund?
An actively managed fund is a mutual fund or ETF where professional fund managers actively make investment decisions to try and outperform a specific benchmark or achieve higher returns. These funds involve higher fees due to the active management involved.
3. What are the main differences between index funds and actively managed funds?
The key differences include:
- Investment Strategy: Index funds aim to match the performance of a market index, while actively managed funds attempt to outperform the benchmark through active stock picking and market timing.
- Management Style: Index funds are passively managed, following a predetermined set of rules, while actively managed funds involve professional fund managers making active investment decisions.
- Fees: Index funds generally have lower fees since they require less active management, while actively managed funds charge higher fees to cover the costs of research, analysis, and management expertise.
- Performance: Index funds seek to replicate overall market performance, while the performance of actively managed funds depends on the investment skills of the fund managers. It is challenging for most active managers to consistently beat the market over the long term.
4. Which type of fund is better for long-term investors?
For long-term investors, index funds are often recommended. They have historically shown consistent performance in line with market indices, and their lower fees can significantly impact long-term returns. Actively managed funds can be riskier due to the potential for underperformance and higher fees.
5. Can actively managed funds outperform index funds?
While some actively managed funds may outperform index funds in certain periods, studies have shown that the majority of active fund managers fail to consistently beat the market over the long term. Therefore, the chances of consistently outperforming index funds are relatively low.
6. How should I decide between index funds and actively managed funds?
The decision depends on your investment goals, risk tolerance, and belief in active management. If you prefer a lower-cost, diversified approach that closely tracks the market, index funds are suitable. If you have strong confidence in active management and are willing to take on more risk, actively managed funds may be worth considering.